Arsino, now in Roman captivity, was transported to Rome, where in 46BC she was forced to appear in Caesar's triumph and was paraded behind a burning effigy of the Lighthouse of Alexandria, which had been the scene of her victory over him. [33][34], On the east coast of the sea, the key settlements were Berenice (modern Aqaba/Eilat)[35] and Ampelone (near modern Jeddah). [21][22] Stacy Schiff, who places Arsino's age at around seventeen during the events of 48-47 BC, notes that Arsino "burned with ambition" and was "not the kind of girl who inspired complacency," writing that once Arsino escaped the royal palace she became more vocal against her half-sister and that she assumed her position as head of the army alongside anti-Caesar courtier Achillas. He declared that in accordance with Ptolemy XII's will, Cleopatra and Ptolemy would rule Egypt jointly, and in a similar motion restored Cyprus, which had been annexed by Rome in 58 BC, to Egypt's rule and gave it to Arsino and her youngest brother, Ptolemy XIV. The highlight was a Grand Procession, composed on a number of individual processions in honour of each of the gods, beginning with the Morning Star, followed by the Theoi Soteres, and culminating with the Evening Star. Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! It is one of our key pieces of evidence for the intended operation of the Ptolemaic tax system. So his forces, led first by Achillas and then Ganymedes under Arsinoe IV (Cleopatra's younger sister), besieged both Caesar and Cleopatra at the palace. Her cult would prove extremely popular in Egypt throughout the Ptolemaic period. However, Caesar maintained a private affair with Cleopatra that produced a son, Caesarion (later Ptolemy XV), before he departed Alexandria for Rome. Having watched the documentary Cleopatra: Portrait of a Killer when it first came out, I was impressedby it and didnt question the validity of it. [1][2][3][4] For her role in conducting the Siege of Alexandria (47 BC) against her sister Cleopatra, Arsino was taken as a prisoner of war to Rome by the Roman triumvir Julius Caesar following the defeat of Ptolemy XIII in the Battle of the Nile. A key goal of this administrative system was to extract as much wealth as possible from the land, so that it could be deployed for royal purposes, particularly war. There is substantial evidence for the exchange of goods and ideas between Syracuse and Alexandria. However Arsino then escaped from the capital with her mentor, the eunuch Ganymedes, and took command of the Egyptian army. [23], In the 1990s, an octagonal monument situated in the centre of Ephesus was hypothesized by Hilke Thr of the Austrian Academy of Sciences to be the tomb of Arsino. [78] These two friendships were tested in 264 BC, when the First Punic War broke out between Carthage and Rome, but Ptolemy II remained studiously neutral in the conflict, refusing a direct Carthaginian request for financial assistance.[79][77]. Antony and Cleopatra led a joint naval force at the 31 BC Battle of Actium against Octavian's general Agrippa, who won the battle after Cleopatra and Antony fled to the Peloponnese and eventually Egypt. It achieved this goal with greatest efficiency under Ptolemy II. From there, he sailed to Attica in 266 BC. Ptolemy II was the son of Ptolemy I Soter and his third wife Berenice I. Ptolemaic naval forces even entered the Black Sea, waging a campaign in support of the free city of Byzantion. She became queen on the death of her father, Ptolemy XII, in 51 bce and ruled successively with her two brothers Ptolemy XIII (5147) and. Within each nome, there were three officials: the nomarch (nome-leader) who was in charge of agricultural production, the oikonomos (household steward) who was in charge of finances, and the basilikos grammateus (royal secretary), who was in charge of land surveying and record-keeping. This event, along with Antony's marriage to Cleopatra and divorce of Octavia Minor, sister of Octavian, marked a turning point that led to the Final War of the Roman Republic. With Apame's help, Demetrius seized control of the city, but he was assassinated by Berenice. Arsinoe, along with her mentor Ganymedes, declared herself pharaoh after aligning herself with the Egyptian army. However, the Spartan army was unable to break through to Attica and the plan failed. As long as the two kings lived, this dispute did not lead to war, but with the death of Ptolemy I in 282 and of Seleucus I in 281 BC that changed. These included the epistolographos ('letter-writer', responsible for diplomacy), the hypomnematographos ('memo-writer' or the chief secretary), the epi ton prostagmaton ('in charge of commands', who produced the drafts of royal edicts), the key generals, and the dioiketes ('household manager', who was in charge of taxation and provincial administration). )[1][2][3][4] When Ptolemy XII died in 51 BC, he left his eldest son and daughter, Ptolemy and Cleopatra, as joint rulers of Egypt, but Ptolemy soon dethroned Cleopatra and forced her to flee from Alexandria. When he arrived in Alexandria, he was presented with Pompey's head. Its outbreak seems to be connected to the revolt of the co-regent Ptolemy 'the son' who had been leading the Ptolemaic naval forces against Antigonus II. 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