This requires planting pollinizer rows of varieties with viable pollen. It produced high yields and was resistant to the most serious watermelon diseases: anthracnose and fusarium wilt. The average selling price is generally around 25,000 yen ($250). Taxon 66(6): 1393-1405. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "The 5,000-Year Secret History of the Watermelon", "On eating watermelon in front of white people: "I'm not as free as I thought, "Square watermelons Japan. [19], Seedless watermelons were initially developed in 1939 by Japanese scientists who were able to create seedless triploid hybrids which remained rare initially because they did not have sufficient disease resistance. It was reassigned to the genus Citrullus in 1836, under the replacement name Citrullus vulgaris, by the German botanist Heinrich Adolf Schrader. It has become a feral species, growing wild, in western Mexico. The citron melon (Citrullus caffer) is a relative of the watermelon, also called Citrullus lanatus var. [53], In a 100-gram (3 1⁄2-ounce) serving, watermelon fruit supplies 125 kilojoules (30 kilocalories) of food energy and low amounts of essential nutrients (see table). C. rehmii De Winter, and A List of Fruits With Low Citrus Levels | Livestrong.com [23], Charles Fredrick Andrus, a horticulturist at the USDA Vegetable Breeding Laboratory in Charleston, South Carolina, set out to produce a disease-resistant and wilt-resistant watermelon. [52], Citrullis lanatus, variety caffer, grows wild in the Kalahari Desert, where it is known as tsamma. [44] The largest recorded fruit was grown in Tennessee in 2013 and weighed 159 kilograms (351 pounds). [7] Molecular data including sequences from the original collection of Thunberg and other relevant type material, show that the sweet watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) [citation needed], The actual fruit of this plant resembles the more modern, domesticated watermelons, except that it is smaller and more spheroid. [5] In China, the seeds are eaten at Chinese New Year celebrations. [12] It was reassigned to the genus Citrullus in 1916 by Japanese botanists Jinzō Matsumura and Takenoshin Nakai. The variety known as tsamma is grown for its juicy white flesh. The citron melon (Citrullus caffer) is a relative of the watermelon, also called Citrullus lanatus var. The fruit can be eaten raw or pickled, and the rind is edible after cooking. The sentiment evolved into a racist stereotype where black people shared a supposed voracious appetite for watermelon, a fruit long correlated with laziness and uncleanliness. is a synonym of C. amarus Schrad. [27], A number of cultivar groups have been identified:[28], (syn. Matsum. In some areas, it is even used as a source of water during dry seasons. [4] In the Civil War era United States, watermelons were commonly grown by free black people and became one symbol for the abolition of slavery. Citron melon leaves are palmate in the early stages of growth, and deeply lobed in later development. lanatus) and citron melons (Citrullus lanatus var. Additionally, other wild species have bitter fruit containing cucurbitacin. These usually have three lobes which are themselves lobed or doubly lobed. [23] Lack of pollen is thought to contribute to "hollow heart" which causes the flesh of the watermelon to develop a large hole, sometimes in an intricate, symmetric shape. Spanish settlers were growing it in Florida in 1576, and it was being grown in Massachusetts by 1629, and by 1650 was being cultivated in Peru, Brazil and Panama, as well as in many British and Dutch colonies. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like flowering plant originally domesticated in West Africa. Citrus fruits are edible fruits that belong to the genus Citrus, and family Rutaceae. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Watermelon&oldid=985116733, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. What Fruits Are Not Citrus? Watermelon pulp contains carotenoids, including lycopene. [50], Watermelon rinds may be eaten, but their unappealing flavor may be overcome by pickling,[41] sometimes eaten as a vegetable, stir-fried or stewed. Plants have both male and female flowers on 40-millimetre-long (1 1⁄2 in) hairy stalks. It is not a form of the sweet watermelon C. vulgaris and not closely related to that species. Matsum. It is a highly cultivated fruit worldwide, having more than 1,000 varieties. Watermelon is a scrambling and trailing vine in the flowering plant family Cucurbitaceae. These are yellow, and greenish on the back. Matsum. These fruits are either eaten by simply peeling off the skin, or are squeezed to make juice. The plant has branching tendrils. [10] (The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants does not allow names like "Citrullus citrullus". [45] Secondary producers included Iran, Turkey, and Brazil. C. colocynthis (L.) Schrad. Try apples, pears, watermelon and berries. [9], The sweet watermelon was formally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 and given the name Cucurbita citrullus. Renner, S. S., A. Sousa, and G. Chomicki. C. naudinianus (Sond.) [11] The bitter wooly melon was formally described by Carl Peter Thunberg in 1794 and given the name Momordica lanata. Some smaller, spherical varieties of watermelon—both red- and yellow-fleshed—are sometimes called "icebox melons". As noted above, while some people do eat it raw, it's more often cooked or prepared in some other way. In 2017, China produced about two-thirds of the world total of watermelons. All rights reserved -. The watermelon is a citrus fruit in the curcurbitacae family, the same family as the cucumber. & Zeyh., Three discussions in Cucurbitaceae. The result, in 1954, was "that gray melon from Charleston". Leaves are 60 to 200 millimetres (2 1⁄4 to 7 3⁄4 inches) long and 40 to 150 mm (1 1⁄2 to 6 in) wide. [4], The US Department of Agriculture recommends using at least one beehive per acre (4,000 m2 per hive) for pollination of conventional, seeded varieties for commercial plantings. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like flowering plant originally domesticated in Africa. DNA data reveal that C. lanatus var. [22] Some varieties often grown in Japan and other parts of the Far East are susceptible to fusarium wilt. [24][25], Farmers of the Zentsuji region of Japan found a way to grow cubic watermelons by growing the fruits in metal and glass boxes and making them assume the shape of the receptacle. 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